CONCEPT OF CHANNEL PLANFORMS CHANGES ON POTENTIAL RIVER FLOODING
Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Okonofua E.S., Emeribe C.N., Dewingong C.L., Butu A.W
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This study investigated the effect of channel planforms changes on potential river flooding in Kaduna state (River Kaduna as case study); with the aim to ascertain the effects of river channel planform on its potential flooding and put measures in place to advert the environmental menace. Topographic maps covering the entire course of the river and the characteristics of the river to be studied were obtained from the federal ministry of survey. The reliability of satellite images was verified by ground measurements using a 30m Surveyor’s tape on four bridges that cross River Kaduna. The measurements obtained were compared with correspondent measurements on the satellite image and found that the ground measurements and the measurements on both SPOT and Sentinel images were close. Three reaches (Meander 1, 2, 3; Straight reach 1, 2, 3 and Braided reach 1, 2, 3) were selected for this study. Variations measured along the river were changes in channel width, changes in sinuosity index, changes in braiding index channel lateral migration and changes in channel length from 1962 to 2017. The results showed a reduction in the channels width in all the reaches from average of 190m in 1962 to 74m in 2017; the sinuosity index was low in the duration considered (average of 1,15) while the braiding index value had a mean of 0.55. Channel migration also reduced from an average of 82m in 1962 to 53m in 2017 while the river reduced by 12% within this same period. The propensity of river flooding in the study area is high hence there is the need to carry out channel improvement, early warning system and desiltation of the river in order to eliminate the potential danger.