Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

AMBIENT SEISMIC NOISE FOOTPRINTS AND SPECTRA IN THE MIDDLE BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA

PETROGRAPHIC, PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SANDSTONE OF MIRPUR DISTRICT AREA STATE OF AJ&K, PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT

 

PETROGRAPHIC, PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SANDSTONE OF MIRPUR DISTRICT AREA STATE OF AJ&K, PAKISTAN

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Shah Naseer, Didar Ahmad, Zahid Hussain

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2019.32.38

The project area located in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. It is the northeastern part of Pakistan. Geologically the area lies in Kashmir basin. On the southern side, it lies within the extensive Potwar basin. It is an active sedimentary basin. Different Sandstone from different location were collected from the area which is easily accessible and best outcropped with standard size 6/6 inches by helping geological equipment’s. After the preparation of the samples, the current study used different type of tests like, (Point load strength Test, Sonic Pulse Velocity Test, Brazilian Test, Uniaxial Compressive Strength Test (UCS), Slake Durability Test and Petrography). Though the microscopic study of the sandstone different minerals and features were identified. The typical mineral assemblage of Mirpur area Sandstone includes Quartz, Tourmaline, Albite. Hornblende, Hematite Plagioclase, Feldspar, Muscovite, Biotite, Cementing martial, Rock fragment, Opaque and Matrix. Geotechnically finding out the ability of water absorption, resistant against weakening, bear and tear, Tensile strength, Compression strength, also find porosity and permeability of Sandstone. Project area underlying the non-marine Neogene fluvial Himalayan molasse deposit sediments.

Pages 32-38
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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AMBIENT SEISMIC NOISE FOOTPRINTS AND SPECTRA IN THE MIDDLE BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

AMBIENT SEISMIC NOISE FOOTPRINTS AND SPECTRA IN THE MIDDLE BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Clifford N. C. Mbachi, Etim D. Uko, Chibuogwu L. Eze, Iyeneomie Tamunobereton -Ari, Dorathy B. Umoetok And Allu A. Umbugdau

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2019.23.31

Ambient noise was analysed from a two-dimensional (2D) seismic data acquired in the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria for the purpose of characterizing the ambient seismic noise. Sercel 428XL recording instrument was deployed on 3 traverse lines where dynamite explosive sources and geophone detectors were used. The acquired data was processed using frequency wavenumber (FK) and wild amplitude attenuation (WAA) algorithms. The dominant amplitude of the primary reflection ranges between -20dB and -10dB, while those of the ambient seismic noise varies between -42dB and -3dB. The primary reflections have dominant frequency varying from 6Hz to 75Hz while that of ambient seismic noise varies between 4Hz and 70Hz. Analysis of the noise shows two distinct ground roll modes with velocities between 400 ms-1 and 810 ms-1 both of which are dispersive with wavelength (λ) of 61.5m and peak frequency at 6.5Hz. Analysis of passive noise records acquired showed that ambient seismic (background) noise level excluding source-generated noise average of 91.56% are below 25µV, which is the tolerance noise level limit. The combination of frequency wavenumber FK and WAA filters effectively attenuated the surface waves especially ground rolls and other high amplitude noise making the primary reflection very visible and better enhanced. The filtered amplitude values estimated from signal-to-noise (SNR) analysis using cross correlation (XC) method are much higher than the values of the unfiltered amplitudes indicating that SNR are highest when noises are attenuated from the data than when noise algorithm is not applied to the data. The attributes of these seismic noises will provide further information and solution for their suppression during seismic data acquisition and processing.

Pages 23-31
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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INVESTIGATION OF HEAVY-MINERAL DEPOSITS USING MULTISPECTRAL SATELLITE IMAGERY IN THE EASTERN COASTAL MARGIN OF BANGLADESH

ABSTRACT

 

INVESTIGATION OF HEAVY-MINERAL DEPOSITS USING MULTISPECTRAL SATELLITE IMAGERY IN THE EASTERN COASTAL MARGIN OF BANGLADESH

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Md. Yousuf Gazi, Khandakar Tahmida Tafhim, Md. Kawser Ahmed, Md Atikul Islam

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2019.16.22

Sea beaches are always a good source of heavy minerals around the world. Cox’s Bazar has 120 km of unbroken sandy sea beach. The study includes the sea beaches of 5 upazilas (Moheshkhali, Kolatoli, Ramu, Ukhia, Teknaf) in Cox’s bazaar district for studying the concentration, identification and investigation of heavy mineral deposits along the sandy beaches. This study has concentrated on the physical properties, identification, and abundance of the heavy minerals fraction in sediments collected from the study area. Satellite imagery Landsat-8 OLI was used for remote sensing verifications. The image processing and crucial analysis carried out using Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI), Arc GIS and Erdas Imagine software. Coastal areas adjacent to Teknaf upazila has a very significant amount of heavy mineral reserves, almost 16%. The study has identified around nineteen variety of heavy minerals from the collected samples in the study area. Ilmenite, Kyanite, Garnet, Rutile, Zircon, Magnetite, Augite, Hornblende, Enstatite, Epidote, Andalusite, Hypersthene, Diopside and Cassiterite have been found the most abundant in the entire study area. The Coastline of Bangladesh was surveyed completely to map the heavy minerals which are potential resources for our national economy.

Pages 16-22
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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MODELLING SURFACE RUN-OFF RESPONSE USING HYDROLOGICAL MODEL SWAT IN THE UPPER WATERSHED OF RIVER SUBARNAREKHA, INDIA

ABSTRACT

 

MODELLING SURFACE RUN-OFF RESPONSE USING HYDROLOGICAL MODEL SWAT IN THE UPPER WATERSHED OF RIVER SUBARNAREKHA, INDIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Pipas Kumar, Varun Joshi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2019.09.15

Climate change is believed to affect the hydrological pattern of a watershed. The current paper evaluates the ability of a hydrological model Soil and Water assessment Tool (SWAT) to create a scenario of precipitation on the upper watershed of River Subarnarekha, Ranchi, in the state of Jharkhand, India. Sequential uncertainty fitting (SUFI-2) algorithm has been applied for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The sensitivity analysis was made using a built-in SWAT sensitivity analysis tool that uses the Latin Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time. The model parameters were calibrated (2001-2005) and validated (2013-2017) with discharge data obtained from CWC hydrological observatory site, Muri (Ranchi). In this study, IPCC SRES A1B Scenario, PRECIS RCM for time slices, near century (2011–2040, or 2020s), mid century (2041–2070, or 2050s) and end century (2071–2098, or 2080s) extracted by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India) have been used for the study The analysis shows that the mean annual rainfall will slightly decrease by 19.4 mm (1.4%) in the 2020s, increase by 86.2 mm (6.2%) in the 2050s, and further increase by 126 mm (9.1%) in the 2080s. For the 2020s, surface runoff shows an average annual decrease by 18.4%. For the 2050s and 2080s, there is an average annual increase by 11.8% and 38.2% respectively. It may be concluded that the precipitation pattern of the climate projections has a significant impact on water balance components. This study will be useful to take timely decisions for the best possible options to mitigate the impact of climate change.

Pages 09-15
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN SURFACE SOILS IN MEIDUK COPPER MINE AREA, SE IRAN

ABSTRACT

 

ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN SURFACE SOILS IN MEIDUK COPPER MINE AREA, SE IRAN

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Ali Rezaei, Hossein Hassani, Seyedeh Belgheys Fard Mousavi, Sara Hassani, Nima Jabbari

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2019.01.08

Mining activities are potentially a significant source of metals contamination in the environment. The purpose of this research is to investigate the environmental impacts of mining activities in the vicinity of Meiduk copper mine. In this study, we use the pollution indices such as contamination factor, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index for evaluating the metal contaminants, including Pb, Ni, Se, Mo and Zn. The fieldwork consisted of 60 surface soil samples drawn at the depth of 0-30 cm. The samples were, then, analyzed for metals using ICP-MS method. Principal component analysis of compositional data (PCA) was also applied as a multivariate method to find relationships among metals. In the first component (PC1), with 51% of the total variance, strong and positive loadings related to Pb, Se, Mo and Zn were evident. The second component (PC2), with 34 % of the total variance, reflected a positive weighting factor of Ni metal. The obtained results showed that heavy metals levels and distribution were found higher at sites which were in the vicinity of mine pits and waste dumps and were probable sources of metal pollution. As an application of the method proposed in this research, project management will be capable of programming timely and suitable response to these risks by identifying risk factors and their contamination level.

Pages 01-08
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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APPLICATION OF GIS FOR CYCLONE VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS OF BANGLADESH

ABSTRACT

 

BASIN CLASSIFICATION OF SHOUSHAN BASIN, WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Jong E Cheng

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2019.35.38

Several research works have been carried out on Shoushan Basin, Western Desert including the petroleum system in the Shoushan Basin. However, there is no proper classification was done on Shoushan Basin, Western Desert, Egypt using Global Basin Classification. The objective of this study is to classify Shoushan Basin using Global Basin Classification as proposed by Kingston et al. (1983a, b). The study which was done by integrating different types of data including geochemical, well log, seismic data from literature review provided a better understanding of the evolution and the hydrocarbon potential of Western Desert. Shoushan Basin consists of two basin types which included Margin Sag (MS) Cycle Basin and Wrench Cycle Basin (LL). The combination of these cycles, stages and tectonic event results in the formula being written from the youngest to the oldest as follows: LL – 2/LD/MS – 321321321.

Pages 35-38
Year 2019
Issue 1
Volume 3

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APPLICATION OF GIS FOR CYCLONE VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS OF BANGLADESH

ABSTRACT

 

APPLICATION OF GIS FOR CYCLONE VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS OF BANGLADESH

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Hossain, M.S, Karlson, M, Neset, T.-S

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2019.25.34

Cyclones are one of the most common and foremost natural hazards in the world that causes extensive causalities. Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to cyclone hazard for its geographical location and socio-economic conditions. This study has aimed to analyze the historical cyclonic hazards and creating vulnerability maps and risk maps for Bangladesh. The apposite variables were selected by reviewing pertinent literatures and necessary data were retrieved for 1900 to 2015. GIS tool has been used for visualization of weighed scores for hazard, vulnerability and risk based on historical cyclones’ intensities, magnitudes, causalities and existing coping capacities. Moreover, hotspot analysis that implies Getis-Ord Gi* spatial statistics was also used in this study to identify the patterns of spatial significance and relationship of areas among their neighbors. This analysis produced Z scores from weighed variables those were proportional to the degree of vulnerability and risk. The low negative to high positive Z scores are correlative of low to high cyclone vulnerability and risk. Consequently, the weighed scores have elicited the coastal areas are in front line in terms of vulnerability and risk to cyclone. Besides, Gi* revealed that some areas are significantly risk prone for being spatially influenced by their neighbors.

Pages 25-34
Year 2019
Issue 1
Volume 3

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ROOT DENSITY ANALYSIS AND WAVE ATTENUATION ABILITY OF RHIZOPHORA SPECIES AT KEMAMAN, TERENGGANU

ABSTRACT

 

ROOT DENSITY ANALYSIS AND WAVE ATTENUATION ABILITY OF RHIZOPHORA SPECIES AT KEMAMAN, TERENGGANU

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Isfarita Ismail, Mohd Lokman Husain, Behara Satyanarayana, Sulong Ibrahim, Rozaimi Zakaria

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2019.18.24

The root density analysis and wave reduction ability of Rhizophora species was investigated at Pulau Sekepeng, Kemaman (Terengganu) in Peninsular Malaysia. A 12 m transect for Rhizophora species was set up inside the mangrove forest from the vegetation’s edge. Many fishing boats pass through the estuary, each producing a set of waves in their wakes. Based on observations, the effect of vertical and horizontal variations in vegetation density on wave attenuation was analyzed. It is found that the vegetation density decreases with increasing distance inside the mangrove forest and it also decreases with increasing vertical height of mangrove trees. The average wave reduction increases with increasing distance inside the mangrove forest. Also, the wave reduction decreases with increasing water level. From this study it is concluded that the wave reduction ranged from as low as 3.27% to as high as 20.66%, the average reduction being 11%.

Pages 18-24
Year 2019
Issue 1
Volume 3

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HIGH RESOLUTION MAGNETIC FIELD SIGNATURES OVER AKURE AND ITS ENVIRONS, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

HIGH RESOLUTION MAGNETIC FIELD SIGNATURES OVER AKURE AND ITS ENVIRONS, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Cyril C. Okpoli

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2019.09.17

Aeromagnetic data over Akure, Southwestern Nigeria was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed to unravel subsurface magnetic anomalies. The analyses made on the IGRF corrected aeromagnetic data acquired was used to estimate depth to anomalous sources using 2-D power spectrum, werner deconvolution and 3-D Euler deconvolution. We gridded and sampled the aeromagnetic dataset; while the spectral analysis transforms the spatial data into frequency domain and provides a relationship between radially average spectrum of the magnetic anomalies and depths to the respective sources. Werner and Euler estimate and examines the shape, type of magnetic field within a window and calculate 3-D source locations based on its structural index. The characteristic nature of the magnetic anomalies as expressed by the profiles that is indicative of the different rock types (charnokite, porphyritic granite, grey gneiss, migmatite). Qualitative interpretation results revealed the following ranges for reduction to equator, upward and downward continuation, analytical signal, vertical derivative as; -418.29nT to 532.35nT, -96.7T to 17 5.4nT, -544.53nT to 597.70nT, -0.0nT to 2.199nT, -0.1nT to 0.1nT; while the quantitative interpretation results revealed-power spectrum, werner deconvolution and euler deconvolution as: 3.0m to 11.0m, 20.6m to 650m, 166.29m to – 323.05m respectively. Location, source and depth of magnetic anomaly have been unraveled.

Pages 09-17
Year 2019
Issue 1
Volume 3

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GEOETHICS AS AN EMERGING DISCIPLINE: PERSPECTIVES, ETHICAL CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

ABSTRACT

 

GEOETHICS AS AN EMERGING DISCIPLINE: PERSPECTIVES, ETHICAL CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Nwankwoala, H.O

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2019.01.08

Geoethics is the union of the prefix “geo” and the word “ethics”. This means responsibility towards the Earth, an ethics for the planet. Geoethics involves research and reflection on the values which underpin appropriate behaviours and practices, wherever human activities interact with the Earth system. Geoethics deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience knowledge, education, research, practice and communication, and with the social role and responsibility of geoscientists in conducting their activities. Geoethics recognizes that human beings are a geological force capable of acting on natural environments, and in virtue of this prerogative assigns to them an ethical responsibility towards the Earth system. Studying and managing the Earth system, exploiting its geo-resources, intervening in natural processes are actions that involve great responsibilities towards society and the environment are the exclusive reserve of geoscientists. Only by increasing the awareness of this responsibility, can we work with wisdom and foresight, and respect the balances that exist in nature while guaranteeing a sustainable development for future generations. Promoting Geoethics articulates the responsibilities of geoscientists to improve both the quality of professional work and the credibility of geoscientists, to foster excellence in geosciences, to assure sustainable benefits for communities, as well as to protect local and global environments; all with the aim of creating and maintaining the conditions for the healthy and prosperous development of future generations. Equally as important to the success of the scientific enterprise are the personal attributes required of being a scientist and the responsible conduct of scientists in their personal interactions with colleagues and the public. The paper therefore provides an overview the scope and dynamics of the emerging field of geoethics, by showing the trajectory that has led to the current point of development of geoethics, challenges, prospects and suggesting some cues for thought for further advancements of ethical thinking in geosciences.

Pages 01-08
Year 2019
Issue 1
Volume 3

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