APPLICABILITY OF THE GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX (GSI) CLASSIFICATION FOR THE TRUSMADI FORMATION AT SABAH, MALAYSIA
Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Author: Rodeano Roslee, Jeffery Anak Pirah, Ahmad Nazrul Madri, Mohd Fauzi Zikiri
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
During the feasibility and preliminary design stages of a project, when very little detailed information on the rock mass and its geomechanic characteristics is not available, the use of a Rock Mass Classification Scheme (RMCS) can be of considerable benefit. Various parameters were used in order to identify the RMCS. The parameter comprised of Rock Quality Designation (RQD), Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Rock Structure Rating (RSR), Geological Strength Index (GSI), Slope Mass Rating (SMR), etc. In this paper, we present the results of the applicability of the Geological Strength Index (GSI) classification for the Trusmadi Formation in Sabah, Malaysia. The GSI classification system is based on the assumption that the rock mass contains a sufficient number of “randomly” oriented discontinuities such that it behaves as a homogeneous isotropic mass. In this study, the GSI relates the properties of the intact rock elements/blocks to those of the overall rock mass. It is based on an assessment of the lithology, structure and condition of discontinuity surfaces in the rock mass and is estimated from visual examination of the rock mass exposed in outcrops or surface excavations. A total of ten (10) locations were selected on the basis of exposures of the lithology and slope condition of the Trusmadi Formation. The Trusmadi Formation regionally experienced of two major structural orientations NW-SE and NE-SW. It consists mostly of dark grey shale with thin bedded sandstones, typical of a turbidite deposit. This unit has been subjected to low grade of metamorphism, producing slates, phyllites and meta-sediments and intense tectonic deformation producing disrupted or brecciated beds. Quartz vein are quite widespread within the joints on sandstone beds. The shale is dark grey when fresh but changes light grey to brownish when weathered. The results are classified as “Poor Rock” to “Fair Rock” in term of GSI. The poor categories (TR2 and TR7) represent slickensided, highly weathered surfaces with compact coatings or fillings or angular fragments. It is also characterized as blocky/ disturbed/seamy, which folded with angular blocks formed by many intersecting discontinuity sets. The fair categories can be divided into two (2) types; type 1 (TR1, TR6 and TR8) which represent as smooth, moderately weathered and have altered surfaces. It is also characterised as very blocky rock, which indicates interlocked, partially disturbed ass with multi-faceted angular blocks formed by 4 or more joint sets. Type 2 (TR3, TR4, TR5, TR9 and TR10) which represent as smooth, moderately weathered and have altered surfaces but characterized as blocky/disturbed/seamy, which folded with angular blocks formed by many intersecting discontinuity sets. It also has persistence of bedding planes or schistosity.