The Sedimentary Geology, Remote sensing, Geomorphology and Petrology of Miocene to Late Pliocene sediments in District Sudhunhoti and Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan
Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Author: Muhammad Yasin, Syed Muhammad Kamran Ali, Munir ul Hassan Munir, Muhammad Ishfaque
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
A research work was embarked in the area in order to understand the sedimentary geology, remote sensing, geomorphology and petrology of the district Sudhunhoti and Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. For this purpose the Khirik, Muttail Maira, Thandi Kassi, Kothian, Hill, Maidan, Rhera, Dar, Sairhan, Afsar Market, Gorah, Nakkar bazaar, Gui Nala, Bandia, Mang, Jassa Pir and Thorar areas were mapped and interpreted on Digital Elevtion Model (DEM) in the sub-Himalayas of Pakistan. The area has been mutilated by folding and faulting governed by orogenic forces. The clastic rocks exposed in the area are sandstone, siltstone, claystone and conglomerates. The sedimentary structures include planner bedding, ripple marks and pebble imbrications. The rip ups of siltstone and clay occur at the base of sandstone. The sandstone of Nagri Formation is well exposed in the area. The sandstone contains clasts of volcanics, quartzites, schist and chert. The sandstone of Dhok Pathan Formation is medium to coarse grained. It contains clasts of gneiss, schists, quartzites, granite, carbonate and marble. The sandstone is comprised of mineral quartz (23% to 45%), feldspar (3% to 13%) and the rock fragments of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The accessory minerals in the Nagri Formation sandstone are biotite (1% to 3%), muscovite (up to 2%), tourmaline (few traces) and zircon (1%). The cementing material in the rock is calcite (6% to 18%) and silica (2% to 3%). The modal mineralogical data of the sandstone shows that the sandstone is lithic arenite and lithic graywacke. The modal data reveal that the detritus was derived from the rising Himalayas in north of the area. The sedimentary structure and the conglomeration is the prima facie for the fluviatile origin of rocks.