Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

PROVENANCE AND TECTONIC SETTING OF SOME PALEOPROTEROZOIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE CHAGUPANA AND TARKWA AREAS OF GHANA: PETROGRAPHIC AND STRUCTURAL CONSTRAINTS

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ROUTINE, EXTREME AND ENGINEERING METEOROLOGY ANALYSIS FOR KARACHI COASTAL AREA

ABSTRACT

ROUTINE, EXTREME AND ENGINEERING METEOROLOGY ANALYSIS FOR KARACHI COASTAL AREA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Muhammad Taqui,Jabir Hussain Syed, Ghulam Hassan Askari

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2020.15.22

Pakistan’s largest city, Karachi, which is industrial centre and economic hub needs focus in research and development of every field of Engineering, Science and Technology. Urbanization and industrialization is resulting bad weather conditions which prolongs until a climate change. Since, Meteorology serves as interdisciplinary field of study, an analytical study of real and region-specific meteorological data is conducted which focuses on routine, extreme and engineering meteorology of metropolitan city Karachi. Results of study endorse the meteorological parameters relationship and establish the variability of those parameters for Karachi Coastal Area. The rise of temperature, decreasing trend of atmospheric pressure, increment in precipitation and fall in relative humidity depict the effects of urbanization and industrialization. The recorded extreme maximum temperature of 45.50C (on June 11, 1988) and the extreme minimum temperature of 4.5 0C(on January 1, 2007) is observed at Karachi south meteorological station. The estimated temperature rise in 32 years is 0.9 0C, which is crossing the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicted/estimated limit of 2oC rise per century. The maximum annual precipitation of 487.0mm appearing in 1994 and the minimum annual precipitation of 2.5mm appearing in 1987 is observed at same station which is representative meteorological station for Karachi Coast. Further Engineering meteorological parameters for heating ventilation air condition (HVAC) system design for industrial purpose are deduced as supporting data for coastal area site study for industrial as well as any follow-up engineering work in the specified region.

Pages 15-22
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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PETROGRAPHIC, PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SANDSTONE OF MIRPUR DISTRICT AREA STATE OF AJ&K, PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT

 

PETROGRAPHIC, PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SANDSTONE OF MIRPUR DISTRICT AREA STATE OF AJ&K, PAKISTAN

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Shah Naseer, Didar Ahmad, Zahid Hussain

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2019.32.38

The project area located in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. It is the northeastern part of Pakistan. Geologically the area lies in Kashmir basin. On the southern side, it lies within the extensive Potwar basin. It is an active sedimentary basin. Different Sandstone from different location were collected from the area which is easily accessible and best outcropped with standard size 6/6 inches by helping geological equipment’s. After the preparation of the samples, the current study used different type of tests like, (Point load strength Test, Sonic Pulse Velocity Test, Brazilian Test, Uniaxial Compressive Strength Test (UCS), Slake Durability Test and Petrography). Though the microscopic study of the sandstone different minerals and features were identified. The typical mineral assemblage of Mirpur area Sandstone includes Quartz, Tourmaline, Albite. Hornblende, Hematite Plagioclase, Feldspar, Muscovite, Biotite, Cementing martial, Rock fragment, Opaque and Matrix. Geotechnically finding out the ability of water absorption, resistant against weakening, bear and tear, Tensile strength, Compression strength, also find porosity and permeability of Sandstone. Project area underlying the non-marine Neogene fluvial Himalayan molasse deposit sediments.

Pages 32-38
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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GEOETHICS AS AN EMERGING DISCIPLINE: PERSPECTIVES, ETHICAL CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

ABSTRACT

 

GEOETHICS AS AN EMERGING DISCIPLINE: PERSPECTIVES, ETHICAL CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Nwankwoala, H.O

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2019.01.08

Geoethics is the union of the prefix “geo” and the word “ethics”. This means responsibility towards the Earth, an ethics for the planet. Geoethics involves research and reflection on the values which underpin appropriate behaviours and practices, wherever human activities interact with the Earth system. Geoethics deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience knowledge, education, research, practice and communication, and with the social role and responsibility of geoscientists in conducting their activities. Geoethics recognizes that human beings are a geological force capable of acting on natural environments, and in virtue of this prerogative assigns to them an ethical responsibility towards the Earth system. Studying and managing the Earth system, exploiting its geo-resources, intervening in natural processes are actions that involve great responsibilities towards society and the environment are the exclusive reserve of geoscientists. Only by increasing the awareness of this responsibility, can we work with wisdom and foresight, and respect the balances that exist in nature while guaranteeing a sustainable development for future generations. Promoting Geoethics articulates the responsibilities of geoscientists to improve both the quality of professional work and the credibility of geoscientists, to foster excellence in geosciences, to assure sustainable benefits for communities, as well as to protect local and global environments; all with the aim of creating and maintaining the conditions for the healthy and prosperous development of future generations. Equally as important to the success of the scientific enterprise are the personal attributes required of being a scientist and the responsible conduct of scientists in their personal interactions with colleagues and the public. The paper therefore provides an overview the scope and dynamics of the emerging field of geoethics, by showing the trajectory that has led to the current point of development of geoethics, challenges, prospects and suggesting some cues for thought for further advancements of ethical thinking in geosciences.

Pages 01-08
Year 2019
Issue 1
Volume 3

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LAND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCOYAM INBENUE STATE, NIGERIA.

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LAND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCOYAM INBENUE STATE, NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Author: Gelleh, I. Daniel, Okeke U. Henry, Babalogbon, B. Ayodeji, Mangut Y. Silas

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2018.25.30

Based on the basic principles and assumptions of FAO evaluation approach, suitability evaluation is always for a specific kind of use, meaning that different kinds of land use have different requirements. In this study, the land use suitability is specifically for the production of cocoyam in Benue State, Nigeria. This study aims to identify and delineate areas that best support the growth of cocoyam within the area. In this study, Land-Sat image of 2014 covering the study area was used to classify different land use types in ArcGIS 10.3 software, SRTM data was used to generate slope of study area, soil map of Nigeria was used, and different soil types within the study area was digitized, Multi-Criteria Evaluation was done in other to generate weightage for different factors that were used to produce the suitability map. The various factors that were used include soil, slope, and land use and the weight derived from each of the factors are 0.5, 0.3, and 0.2 respectively. Rainfall is regarded as constant in the area because of the single climatic type covering the small area. The classes established under the soil types include fluvisols, acrisols, alisols, gleysols, and nitisols, which were assigned the relative weights of 0.2667, 0.2, 0.1333, 0.0667 and 0.3333 respectively. The classes established under the slope include steep slope, strong slope, moderate slope, gentle slope, and nearly level, which were assigned the relative weights 0.0677, 0.13, 0.2, 0.27 and 0.3333 respectively and the classes established under the land-use factors include settlements, bare-surfaces, cultivated land, vegetation, and wetland, which were assigned the relative weights 0.0667, 0.13, 0.2, 0.27 and 0.3333 respectively. The result of the computation was classified into four quarters namely 0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75%, and 76-100%. The results were updated to a newly created field in the attribute data of the GIS layer containing the entire factor data used for suitability evaluation. After computation, SAVMACE sent the results into ArcGIS for symbolization and visualization.

Pages 25-30
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING AWARENESS AND ADAPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE: A CASE STUDY OF BANKE DISTRICT NEPAL

ABSTRACT

 

SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING AWARENESS AND ADAPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE: A CASE STUDY OF BANKE DISTRICT NEPAL

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Author: Anish Shrestha, Samata Baral

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2018.20.24

This study was carried to understand socioeconomic factors affecting knowledge and adaption of climate change among farmers of Banke district, with the hope that knowledge about climate change and their adaption strategy can be targeted properly among farmers and their empowerment can be achieved. All the farmers from Bageshwori Village Development committee were the target population for this study. Ninety households were selected as sampling respondents for this study. The study showed that 42.22% of the respondents know about climate change. The study revealed that 35% of the respondents know about climate change through self-experiences by comparing the past and present events of climatic parameters. Local radio and social organization were the main source of their knowledge about climate change, covering share of 27% and 23% of the respondents’ means of knowledge. Age, gender and education of household head, contact to the extension workers, farming experience, presence of NGO/INGO and access to mass media found to be determinants of awareness of climate change with positive effect, except for household head age. Gender of household head, total annual income of family, farming experience, access to mass media, education of household head, farm size, presence of NGO/INGO and contact to extension workers were found to be determinants of climate change adoption. No decision is taken in vacuum, peoples’ surrounding, and experience surely affects. So, to move forward and achieve climate smart agriculture these socioeconomic factors should be accounted while planning and implementation of program, project or policies.

Pages 20-24
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSGRESSIVE SYSTEMS TRACTS (TSTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA

ABSTRACT

 

SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSGRESSIVE SYSTEMS TRACTS (TSTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Author: Okoli Emeka Austin, Agbasi Okechukwu Ebuka, Akaolisa C. C. Zanders, Inyang Namdie Joseph

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2018.16.19

One way of identifying our MFSs is to look out for shale tops of high acoustic properties within a shale interval that corresponds to the lowest resistivity values and widest separation between neutron and density values. The TSTs culminate to a MFS as it comprises the deposits accumulated from the onset of coastal transgression until the time of maximum transgression of the coast, just prior to renewed regression (SepmStrata, 20). The seismic character of the shales within these TSTs could vary factoring the effect of depth trends, hence a need to understand the trend with increasing depth and thereby increased compaction. From generated synthetic, using the seismic responses at interfaces within the lithologies cut across by one of our HP well in the Central Swamp depobelt, a study integrating Reflectivity Pattern Analysis (RPA) and Sequence Stratigraphic analysis was carried out to understand the behavior of our shales within the TSTs. Key bounding surfaces which subdivide the strata into contemporaneously deposited sediment packages were identified from well log responses from a complete suite of logs which included Gamma Ray, Resistivity and Porosity logs. It was observed that shales in the TSTs were of higher acoustic properties compared to sales in the HSTs.

Pages 16-19
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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SWAT SUBBASINS PARAMETERS AND FLOOD RISK SIMULATIONS USING 3D IN TERENGGANU WATERSHED

ABSTRACT

 

SWAT SUBBASINS PARAMETERS AND FLOOD RISK SIMULATIONS USING 3D IN TERENGGANU WATERSHED

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Author: Ibrahim Sufiyan, Dr. Razak Bin Zakariya, Rosnan Yacoob, Md.Suffian Idris, Nasir M. Idris

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2018.10.15

Flood is one of the natural disasters that occurs mostly due to climate characteristics and locations. The application of SWAT has categorized the subbasins and identify them on the basis of parameters. The use of GIS technology produces the flood risk zone through the 3D ArcScene 10.3. the ArcGIS 10.3 and ArcSWAT 2012 were employed for the analysis of the result. The remote sensing data from ASTER DEM was also been used for providing the high-resolution platform. One of the significance of this study is the identification of 25 different sub-basins with their individual parameters that make easiear to classify and explore. The 3Dsimulation produces different categories of flood risk zone from very high vulnerability of flood to no flood risk zone. All these are confined within the 25 subbasins parameters obtained from the catchment area of Terengganu. The model designed in this study is clearly going to be useful for planning as well as management not only in Terengganu but entire Malaysia or similar environment.

Pages 10-15
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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VARIATION IN SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION AND WATER DISCHARGE DURING STORM EVENTS IN TWO CATCHMENTS, NORTHEAST OF ALGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

VARIATION IN SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION AND WATER DISCHARGE DURING STORM EVENTS IN TWO CATCHMENTS, NORTHEAST OF ALGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Author: Kamel Khanchoul, Bachir Saaidia, Robert Altschul

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2018.01.09

The relation between concentration and discharge is not normally homogenous during the storm event, often producing hysteretic loops. In this study relations between sediment concentration and water discharge for hydrologic events are studied by analyzing temporal graphs (discharge and concentration versus time) in terms of spread and skewness. The hysteresis types of the discharge and concentration of 170 storm events have been analyzed to identify the relations between hysteretic loops and the associated controlling factors in the Saf Saf and Kebir West basins. Surveys of suspended sediment concentration and water discharge are being carried out at gauging stations. The selected storm events are based on samples having many sediment concentrations at water discharges. Comparing C/Q ratios at a given discharge on the rising and falling limbs of hydrographs is providing a consistent, reliable method for analyzing C-Q relations. Four common classes of such relations are determined such as single-valued line, clockwise loop, counterclockwise loop and figure eight. The plot of points has exhibited a hysteresis loop which is explained by the variability of sediment concentrations during storm events and seasonal effects. The most frequent floods at Saf Saf and Kebir West rivers are clockwise and single-valued line (62% and 59% of floods respectively) that have brought 73% and 81% of the total sediment flux. Intra-annual variability is very high. Over 31-years, the three biggest floods at each Saf Saf and Kebir West rivers have cumulated 97% and 68% of the total sediment flux and are of two classes.

Pages 01-09
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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LITHOSTRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS AND PETROGENETIC AFFINITIES OF THE BASEMENT COMPLEX ROCKS AROUND OKPELLA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

LITHOSTRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS AND PETROGENETIC AFFINITIES OF THE BASEMENT COMPLEX ROCKS AROUND OKPELLA, NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Author: Ogunyele, A. C., Obaje, S. O., Akingboye, A. S.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2018.29.36

Okpella area is the eastern extension of the Igarra Schist Belt, Southwestern Nigerian Basement Complex. The area comprises granite gneiss, metasedimentary rocks and Pan-African intrusives. Metasedimentary rocks occurring in the area include garnet-biotite schist, marble and calc-silicate gneiss, quartzite and Banded Iron Formation (BIF). The Pan-African intrusives include granite, charnockite, hybrid rocks, pegmatite, aplite and basic dykes. Structural data of rocks in the area suggest the presence of two contrasting structural trends. The older one which appears restricted to the granite gneiss, calc-silicate gneiss and garnet-biotite schist trends ENE-WSW to EW with moderate dips to the south. The latter NW-SE to NS trend is pervasive and occurs in all the metasediments and granite gneiss. These two trends are related to two deformational episodes and probably two orogenic periods. All the metasediments show affinity for sedimentary parentage, the granite gneiss is probably of igneous origin while the intrusives are magmatic. The charnockite-granite hybrid rock probably represents a zone of magma mixing between two contrasting magmas that were emplaced contemporaneously. The occurrence of carbonate bodies in association with deformed pelites as well as the complete absence of metavolcanics in the area suggests deposition in a miogeosynclinal-continental environment along which crustal distention has occurred. A sequence of nine geological events is suggested for the evolution of the area as deduced from field observation.

Pages 29-36
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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STREAMING CURRENT INDUCED BY FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

ABSTRACT

 

STREAMING CURRENT INDUCED BY FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)
Author: Luong Duy Thanh, Phan Van Do

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2018.22.28

Streaming current is induced by the relative motion between a fluid and a solid surface under a fluid pressure difference. In this work, a theoretical model for the streaming current coefficient in porous media is firstly developed based on the fractal theory. The proposed model is then compared with experimental data in the literature and other models. It seems that the prediction from the proposed model is in better agreement with the experimental data than the other models. Therefore, the proposed model may be an alternative approach to predict the streaming current coefficient from the zeta potential, rock parameters and fluid properties. It is also proved that fractal theory is the alternative and useful means for studying the transport phenomenon in porous media.

Pages 22-28
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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