Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

ASSESSMENT OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN THE CZ FIELD, NIGER DELTA BASIN, UTILIZING INTEGRATED FACIES AND PETROPHYSICAL ANALYSES FOR PREDICTIVE MODELING

Author archives:

ASSESSMENT OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN THE CZ FIELD, NIGER DELTA BASIN, UTILIZING INTEGRATED FACIES AND PETROPHYSICAL ANALYSES FOR PREDICTIVE MODELING

ABSTRACT

ASSESSMENT OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN THE CZ FIELD, NIGER DELTA BASIN, UTILIZING INTEGRATED FACIES AND PETROPHYSICAL ANALYSES FOR PREDICTIVE MODELING

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Chisom Kingsley Okwaraojimadu, Casmir Zanders Akaolisa, Okechukwu Ebuka Agbasi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.174.182

The “CZ” field refers to a promising hydrocarbon reservoir situated inside the Niger Delta region in Nigeria. The field is characterised by the presence of three distinct reservoir zones, namely the Agbada, Benin, and Akata formations. The research employed a multidisciplinary methodology to assess the hydrocarbon potential of the field, using techniques such as well log analysis, seismic interpretation, and petrophysical modelling. The findings of the research indicate that the “CZ” region has noteworthy potential for hydrocarbon resources. The aggregate assessed in-situ reserves of oil and gas amount to 1.2 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE) and 8.0 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas, correspondingly. The expected recovery factor for oil in the field is 20%, while for petrol it is predicted to be 80%. The study has identified a number of issues that want attention in order to advance the subject of “CZ.” The problems encompass several factors, namely the existence of water and gas within the reservoir, the intricate structural geology of the field, and the field’s distant geographical position. Notwithstanding these obstacles, the “CZ” sector exhibits the capacity to emerge as a significant hydrocarbon producer. The research offers a significant foundation for subsequent assessment and advancement of the discipline.

Pages 174-182
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha

REVISED LITHOFACIES AND FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF MIOCENE MURREE FORMATION, ISLAMABAD

ABSTRACT

REVISED LITHOFACIES AND FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF MIOCENE MURREE FORMATION, ISLAMABAD

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Ahmad Saleem, Samrab Adeel, Javid Hussain

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.156.163

A thorough understanding of a rock formation’s structure and sedimentology is crucial before engaging in hydrological exploration or any development project. Islamabad is going through rapid development, so it’s crucial to update the subsurface studies for the benefit of the citizens. This research aims to study the Sedimentological characteristics of the Murree Formation through lithofacies analysis and to know the hydrological characteristics through Fracture analysis. Fracture analysis was conducted using the circle inventory method to calculate fractured porosity and permeability within the Murree Formation in the Islamabad region, and the lithofacies analysis was performed by observing the Sedimentological characteristics of each rock bed. Fracture analysis indicates that the rock formation in the Shah Alla Ditta region is not suitable enough to be classified as an aquifer. At the same time, the lithofacies study shows that the Murree Formation was deposited in a fluvial environment.

Pages 156-163
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha

HYDROGEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER IN THE AYANFURI AREA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND IRRIGATION

ABSTRACT

HYDROGEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER IN THE AYANFURI AREA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND IRRIGATION

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Ewusi Anthony, Samuel Edem Kodzo Tetteh, Albert Kafui Klu and Jamel Seidu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.142.155

The study of groundwater and surface water in the Ayanfuri area of the Central Region of Ghana has been carried out using hydrochemical analysis and geochemical modelling to determine its suitability for human consumption and irrigation purposes. A total of 77 samples were collected from community boreholes, observation boreholes, Tailing Storage Facility (TSF) boreholes, and streams and analyzed for geochemical parameters. Sodium is the dominant cation for all the sampling sites except for TSF boreholes which are calcium-dominated. Also, the dominant anion is bicarbonate for all sampling sites, except for streams that are sulphate-dominated. The hydrochemical facies in the sampling sites are Na-Mg-HCO3 (54.55%), Na-Mg-HCO3-Cl (23.08%), Na-Mg-HCO3 (22.22%), Na-Mg-HCO3-Cl (22.86%) representing community boreholes, observation boreholes, TSF borehole, and streams, respectively. Water-rock interaction, atmospheric precipitation patterns, ion exchange reactions, and breath dissolution/erosion of plagioclase feldspars serve as the mechanisms influencing the chemical composition of the various water sampling sites. The geochemical modelling reveals the signatures of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum as the main mineral phases. From the water quality guidelines of WHO and WQI classifications, the water is suitable for consumption purposes. Also, the results of the sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percentage, and magnesium hazard indicate that the water in the study area is suitable for irrigation purposes.

Pages 142-155
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha

RADIOLOGICAL COMPARISON ON THE EGYPTIAN MINERAL SANDS AND SILT DEPOSITS AT THE MOUTHS OF THE NILE RIVER, ROSEITA AND DAMIETTA AREAS, MEDITERRANEAN SEA, EGYPT

ABSTRACT

RADIOLOGICAL COMPARISON ON THE EGYPTIAN MINERAL SANDS AND SILT DEPOSITS AT THE MOUTHS OF THE NILE RIVER, ROSEITA AND DAMIETTA AREAS, MEDITERRANEAN SEA, EGYPT

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Mohamed A. S. Youssef , Ali M. Moustafa, Shereen H. Abdel Latif

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.103.116

The high resolution of radioactive measurements acquired by the spectrometric gamma-ray technique were applied in the research area and subjected to statistical analysis, in order to draw valid conclusion, regarding the nature and significance of the distribution of the radioelements, that it represents each input element individually. The qualitative interpretation showed seven anomalous parts in Roseita branch and four anomalous parts in Damietta branch. The quantitative interpretation used traditional statistical treatment the calculated arithmetic mean, standard deviation, range difference (between the minimum and maximum values), standard error, Coefficient of Variation (CV%) and 95% Confidence Interval for the Mean (lower bound and upper bound). Meanwhile, the advanced statistical treatment, such as test of homogeneity Levene’s Statistic, ANOVA test, K mean clustering and post Hoc of the multi comparison among the separated eleven groups. As well as they help to define their original source behaviors.

Pages 103-116
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha

CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF COMPACTION PROPERTIES OF SOIL WITH VARIOUS SOIL PARAMETERS OVER GBARAMATU NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF COMPACTION PROPERTIES OF SOIL WITH VARIOUS SOIL PARAMETERS OVER GBARAMATU NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Amarachukwu A. Ibe, Chukwunenye M. Ogbodo

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.96.102

This study presents the analysis of soil compaction properties relationship over Gbaramatu subsurface of Niger Delta region. It is employed to determine the soil suitability for a wide range of Engineering needs, such as the development of foundations, roadways, and other facilities. The study aims to investigate the relationship between compaction properties on soil samples from Gbaramatu different locations. Ten (10) boreholes disturbed soil samples were collected for this investigation. Laboratory tests were conducted to obtain moisture contents, Particles Size Distribution, Specific Gravity and Consolidated Drained Shear results. Geotechnical analysis was equally conducted on the obtained laboratory parameters, to further obtain the Coefficient of curvature (Cc) and uniformity coefficient (Cu). Standardize statistical correlation tests were presented. Our findings indicate a positive relationship between the optimum moisture content and the coefficient of uniformity corresponding to higher optimum moisture concentrations. This discovery has far-reaching consequences for soil management and irrigation techniques. The results support the assumption that, the physical geology of the location is attributed to swamp reclamation and landfills. This research finally provides useful information about the engineering properties of Gbaramatu soils, and the correlation equations generated will be helpful in predicting values or modeling the correlated properties for soils within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Pages 96-102
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha

SOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND VARIATION IN THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RAINWATER IN THE COASTAL AND INDUSTRIAL AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF IKOT ABASI, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

SOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND VARIATION IN THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RAINWATER IN THE COASTAL AND INDUSTRIAL AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF IKOT ABASI, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Etesin, Usoro Monday, George, Nyakno Jimmy, Ogbonna, Iniobong Joseph, Akpan, Itohowo Okon

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2023.66.74

Studies on precipitation Chemistry were carried out with the aim to understand the nature and sources of rainwater at Utaewa (Location 1), a coastal village and Ikpetim, near Ibom Power Station (Location 2), all in Ikot Abasi Local Government Area, southern, Nigeria. These locations respectively represent the coastal and industrial regions. The rainwater samples, collected at these locations, were analyzed for major cations, anions, electrical conductivity and pH with the aim of identification of variation in the physiochemical compositions of the rainwater samples. The analysis of the rainwater samples gave a pH at locations 1 and 2 as 5.62 ± 0.26 and 5.77± 0.25 respectively during the wet season, while the pH of the rainwater at locations 1 and 2 during dry season were 5.41 ± 0.14 and 5.84 ± 0.21 respectively. The pH values indicated acidic water and were below the World Health Organisation (WHO) Standard of 6.5 to 8.5, but close to the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) optimum pH value of 5.6 for rainwater from unpolluted continental areas. The predominance of 𝐶𝑙−and𝑁𝑎+ were observed in the coastal environment whereas, calcium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions predominate in industrial environment where there are power generating plants, Aluminium smelting company and gas station. The total anion (37.9%) at Utaewa is less influenced by anthropogenic activities whereas total anion (72.5%) at Ikpetim, near Power Plant is influenced by pollutants emitted by anthropogenic activities. The ratio:𝐻+/(NO3- + SO42-) was observed as 0.04 and 0.008 for Utaewa and Ikpetim respectively, which are close to zero, indicating that 99 % of acidity in the rainwater is neutralized in the study area with no consequence of acidity impact on the soil, surface waters and groundwater in the study area. Ca2+ , K+ and Na+ play important roles in neutralization of acidic ions in rainwater. For source identification, correlation matrix analysis was established, which showed that at locations 1 and 2,strong correlation exists between the acidic ions SO42- and NO3-, indicating their origin from anthropogenic activities. This is viewed to be attributed to the similarity in their behaviour in precipitation and the co-emissions of their precursors, which are SO2 and NO2. The major ion enrichment factors (EF) followed the order at location 1 during the dry season;𝐶𝑎2+𝑁𝑎+⁄ (8.58) >𝐾+𝑁𝑎+⁄ (4.32) >𝑆𝑂42−𝑁𝑎+⁄ (0.68) >𝐶𝑙−𝑁𝑎+⁄ (0.11), while the enrichment factor (EF ) during the wet season at location 1 followed the order , 𝐶𝑎2+𝑁𝑎+⁄ (11.92 )>𝐾+𝑁𝑎+⁄ (3.78) >𝑆𝑂42−𝑁𝑎+⁄ (0.88) >𝐶𝑙−𝑁𝑎+⁄ (0.11).

Pages 66-74
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STORAGE VESSEL’S IMPACT ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BOREHOLE WATER FOR IRRIGATION AND DOMESTIC USE SUITABILITY

ABSTRACT

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STORAGE VESSEL’S IMPACT ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BOREHOLE WATER FOR IRRIGATION AND DOMESTIC USE SUITABILITY

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Akpa Chibuike, Njoku Chima, Mark Ngozi Nwoye, Agbo Blessing

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.83.95

The impact of storage vessels on stored water quality changes and how it can influence plant growth, and human health through irrigation and domestic uses has been evaluated. The water was collected from the same borehole source at Ebonyi State University and stored in vessels made of plastic, metal, calabash, and clay pot. The samples were tested in the laboratory to ascertain the physiochemical quality of the water. The following ions Cd, Pb, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, and Cl- were identified in each of the storage vessels which vary from the values of the controlled sample and were below their respective WHO permissible limits, except Cd which is significantly higher than WHO limit (>0.0003mg/l). The variation in qualities (odour, taste, colour, and metal concentration) of stored samples implies a significant influence of storage vessels on water quality. The pH range changed to slight alkali and hardness ranges from 160 to 330 mg/l after storage. The non-uniformity of each of the tested parameters among the samples indicated that each vessel had a different degree of impact on water quality during storage. The irrigation parameter and domestic use assessment showed some level of the potential risk to crops and humans mostly indicated by the MAR of calabash and Cd concentration respectively. The significant decrease in Cl- after storage suggests Cl decay, this enhances quality deterioration as microbial growth can be accelerated. The research conclusively noted that water quality deterioration is not an isotropic result of storage vessel influence but an integral impact of storage culture and geogenic factors’ influence on the water before and during storage and varying environmental constraints.

Pages 83-95
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha

STRUCTURAL INTERPRETATION OF ASSA-FIELD RESERVOIR IN NORTHERN NIGER DELTA NIGERIA, USING WELL LOG

ABSTRACT

STRUCTURAL INTERPRETATION OF ASSA-FIELD RESERVOIR IN NORTHERN NIGER DELTA NIGERIA, USING WELL LOG

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Chukwu, C. Ben, Udota, S. Benjamin

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2023.62.65

Structural interpretation and characterization of Assa-field in Northern Niger Delta was done to map the primary structures responsible for hydrocarbon entrapment and closures that are favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbon as well as to indicate areas for hydrocarbon exploration in the field. The method used for this research involved delineation of lithology, identification of reservoir, interpretation of horizon and fault to generate structural maps of the subsurface. Depth and time structure maps were generated to show more detailed structure of the field. Three major horizons (sand 1, sand 2, and sand 3) were mapped based on uniqueness and clarity of their features. Major faults were delineated from the 3-D seismic section. The appearance of these faults in the field is a sign of possible hydrocarbon accumulation. The knowledge from the results of this study can be applied in exploration and production to identify hydrocarbon trapping potential of a field and volumetric evaluation of fluid in a field.

Pages 62-65
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha

RECONNAISSANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF GROUND MAGNETIC METHOD TO DELINEATE THE SUBSURFACE IN GIDAN-DOYA BASEMENT AREA, NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

RECONNAISSANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF GROUND MAGNETIC METHOD TO DELINEATE THE SUBSURFACE IN GIDAN-DOYA BASEMENT AREA, NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Ohakwere-Eze, M.C., Nwankwo, L.I

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2023.43.46

A 3 Axis MCL6 Magnetometer was used to gather the magnetic data. The information was gathered from a 1 km by 500 m area along eight profile lines with a length of roughly 1000 m each. Each profile is spaced roughly 250m apart from the other. The magnetic investigation was created in a way that provided clear definition of the depth to phenomena in the region. Measurements of the magnetic strengths at discrete spots along traverses spaced consistently throughout the area of interest were required by the data collecting approach in order to sufficiently cover the segment utilized to ascertain the structure and deformation analysis of the study area. The geological conditions in the shallow subsurface provide the highest frequency events of interest, whereas magnetic property contrasts at or beneath the basement surface produce the lowest frequency occurrences. Significant lateral variations and contrasts in the shallow formations’ magnetic characteristics are produced either singly or as a result of a particular combination of faulting, deposition, and mineralization linked to displacement and deformation of the structural system.

Pages 43-46
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha

MODELLING URBAN SPRAWL OF THE GREATER PORT HARCOURT CITY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TECHNIQUES

ABSTRACT

MODELLING URBAN SPRAWL OF THE GREATER PORT HARCOURT CITY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TECHNIQUES

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Chukwubueze Onwuzuligbo, Uzoma Chinenye Okeke, Onah Emmanuel Udochukwu, Iyam Ubi Effiom, John-Uri Kikpoye

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2023.36.42

In recent decades, urban sprawl has been viewed as one of the most pressing issues that cities over all the world in developing countries are batting with. It is often associated mostly with rural-urban migration and rising birth rates, where development is given precedence over urban planning. The study focuses on the urban sprawl of the greater Port Harcourt city. The greater Port Harcourt city is expanding at an unprecedented rate, with no adequate planning or statistical record. The study intends to address this issue by building models using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) tools in order to analyze urban sprawl in the Greater Port Harcourt city. To achieve this set of objectives, three sets of Landsat sensors, which were captured at different time intervals (1986, 2006, and 2021), were used to monitor urban sprawl in the study area. The Geographic Positioning System (GPS) was used during the field visit to collect the ground control points of some locations within the city. The National Population Commission (NPC) data was also employed to acquire the demographic statistics. The result of the study shows that the built-up area had expanded from 47.35 km2 (10.76%) in 1986 to 71.05 km2 (16.14%) in 2000 and to 284.68 km2 (64.68%) in 2021. This expansion in built-up area generates a decline in wetland, bare land, and forest land from 112.296 km2 (25.51%), 61.369 km2 (13.94%), and 160.152 km2 (36.39%) in 1986 to 72.468 km2 (16.47%), 86.486 km2 (19.65%), and 136.853 km2 (31.09%) in 2000, and to 42.810 km2 (9.73%), 10.858 km2 (13.94%), and 40.8384 km2 (9.28%) in 2021. The findings of the study are important because they give the government information on how quickly the study area is expanding, allowing it to adopt an appropriate planning strategy. In conclusion, the study demonstrate that remote sensing and GIS techniques can be utilized to successfully monitor the environment on a regular basis in order to investigate urban sprawl and inform better decision-making.

Pages 36-42
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

Download

Posted by Natasha