Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GOLD-BEARING GRANITOIDS AT AYANFURI IN THE KUMASI BASIN, SOUTHWESTERN GHANA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE OROGENIC RELATED GOLD SYSTEMS

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GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GOLD-BEARING GRANITOIDS AT AYANFURI IN THE KUMASI BASIN, SOUTHWESTERN GHANA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE OROGENIC RELATED GOLD SYSTEMS

ABSTRACT

GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GOLD-BEARING GRANITOIDS AT AYANFURI IN THE KUMASI BASIN, SOUTHWESTERN GHANA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE OROGENIC RELATED GOLD SYSTEMS

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Theophilus K. Agbenyezi, Gordon Foli, Simon K. Y. Gawu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2020.96.103

This study investigates auriferous granitoids from the Esuajah and Fobinso pits within the Ayanfuri environment in the Paleoproterozoic Kumasi basin. The aim is to establish the geochemical characteristics of the granitoid gold ores and the possible deposit type which may influence mineral project development. 13 major and 51 trace elements were analyzed using XRF and ICP-MS devices, respectively. The granitoids are mainly classified as granodiorite that crystallized from a calc-alkaline magma series. The Fobinso granodiorite derived from the partial melting of the Birimian metasedimentary rocks, while the Esuajah granitoid derived from igneous rock melts. The granitoid are linked to magma source depleted in mantle material that contains crustal components through subduction processes. Major oxides of the granitoid vary lowly from the average background values derived for basin type granitoid in such terrains. Generally, the granitoid are enriched in Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE), while High Field Strength Elements (HFSE) and base metals are within background values when compared to Primitive Mantle (PM) values. Gold mineralisation is associated with Ag, As, Bi, Sb, Te, Pb and S in the peraluminous granitoids. Geochemical characteristics and field observations identify the deposit style as an orogenic related gold deposit type.

Pages 96-103
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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PETROGRAPHY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PALEOPROTEROZOIC GRANITOIDS AT THE NORTH-EASTERN MARGIN OF THE KUMASI BASIN IN GHANA

ABSTRACT

PETROGRAPHY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PALEOPROTEROZOIC GRANITOIDS AT THE NORTH-EASTERN MARGIN OF THE KUMASI BASIN IN GHANA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Blestmond A. Brako, Gordon Foli, Kofi Adomako-Ansah, Derrick Aikins, Solomon Dery, Simon K.Y. Gawu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2020.87.95

This study investigates basin-type granitoid samples from the north-eastern margin of the Kumasi Basin in Ghana to establish their source and geodynamic setting. Petrographic analysis, TAS and A/NK-A/CNK plots classify the granitoids as metaluminous quartz diorite, metaluminous granodiorite, and peraluminous monzogranite; and exhibiting I-type signatures. These rocks are formed by magma differentiation and/or partial melting at various stages. Distribution patterns of incompatible elements and the positive Eu/Eu* anomalies of 1.15 and 1.47 exhibited by quartz diorite and granodiorite, respectively, the values suggest the rocks crystallized from melts formed in a water-saturated environment. The negative Eu/Eu* anomaly exhibited by monzogranite indicate fractionation of plagioclase in the final stages of the magma evolution. The water-rich environment is probably due to dewatering of the basin’s foreland volcaniclastic sediments during regional subsidence, burial and metamorphism. K2O enrichments and wide variations suggest that the granodiorite and monzogranite are formed from fractional crystallization and/or crustal assimilation of the continental crust by under-plating dioritic magma. The higher Al2O3/TiO2 enrichment and the shift from metaluminous to peraluminous in the monzogranite suggest a longer residence time within the continental crust, during which fractional crystallization and the assimilation of pre-existing crustal components into the dioritic magma that resulted in the formation of the monzogranite. The study requires replication at other areas within the basin to generate enough data to enhance metallogenic studies in the terrain.

Pages 87-95
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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DARCY-AND PORE-SCALE ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MULTI-PHASE FLUID FLOW THROUGH A PETROLEUM RESERVOIR

ABSTRACT

DARCY-AND PORE-SCALE ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MULTI-PHASE FLUID FLOW THROUGH A PETROLEUM RESERVOIR

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Suresh Kumar Govindarajan, Avanish Mishra, Abhishek Kumar

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2020.77.86

This manuscript primarily focuses on the constraints associated with the extended version of Darcy’s law that is used to describe the multiphase flow through a porous media; and in particular, a petroleum reservoir. This manuscript clearly brings out the basics associated with the usage of Darcy’s law, and reasons out the inapplicability of the Navier-Stokes Equation in order to describe the momentum conservation in a typical petroleum reservoir. Further, this work highlights the essence of continuum-based Darcy’s macroscopic-scale equation with that of Navier-Stokes’s microscopic-scale equation. Further, the absence of capillary forces in original Darcy’s equation and extending the same by considering the concept of ‘capillary pressure’ in order to accommodate the multi-phase flow has several critical constraints associated with it. In this manuscript, all these constraints or limitations have been posed in the form of a list of basic queries that need to be addressed or at least to be understood with clarity, when applying the multi-phase fluid flow equations associated with a petroleum reservoir. This study is limited to an oil-water two-phase system.

Pages 77-86
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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MICROFACIES ANALYSIS OF LATE JURASSIC SAMANA SUK FORMATION, HAZARA BASIN LESSER HIMALAYA NORTH PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT

MICROFACIES ANALYSIS OF LATE JURASSIC SAMANA SUK FORMATION, HAZARA BASIN LESSER HIMALAYA NORTH PAKISTAN

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Yasin Rahim, Qiugen Li, Umar Farooq Jadoon, Wasiq Lutfi, Junaid Kha, Shamim Akhtar

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2020.71.76

The detailed petrological investigation of Samana Suk Formation from Hazara Basin, Pakistan was carried out to elaborate its microfacies. The Samana Suk Formation is mostly composed of fine to coarse-grained, limestone with dolomite in parts developed as a secondary diagenetic fabric. Twenty-five samples were studied from Thandiani Section, and five microfacies with seven sub microfacies were identified. The identified microfacies include Peloidal Foraminiferal Mudstone, Ooidal Peloidal Mudstone, Bioclastic Planktonic Mudstone as Submicrofacies, Peloidal Wackstone, Ooidal Wackstone, Intraclastic Wackstone as Sub Microfacies, Peloidal-Packstone Microfacies, Ooidal Mud-Wack Microfacies and Peloidal-Ooidal Wack-Pack Submicrofacies. Diagenetic features, such as Stylolites, Calcite Veins, Fractures, Dolomitization, Cementation, Compaction and Micritization have been observed in the petrographic study of the samples. The environment of deposition as depicted from the microfacies is Outer ramp for Mudstone, Peloidal Foraminiferal Mudstone, Ooidal to Peloidal Mudstone and Bioclastic Mudstone; Middle ramp for Peloidal Wackstone; Inner ramp for Ooidal Wackstone, Intraclastic Wackstone Peloidal Packstone and Peloidal-Ooidal Wack-Packstone; Inner-Middle ramp for Ooidal-Mud-Wackstone. Based on the microfacies analysis the Samana Suk Formation was interpreted to be deposited in a shallow shelf environment

Pages 71-76
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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DELINEATION OF CONCENTRATION OF FERRUGINOUS MINERALS IN AQUIFERS IN YENAGOA, BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA, USING GEOELECTRIC VERTICAL ELECTRICAL SOUNDING (VES) AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

ABSTRACT

 

DELINEATION OF CONCENTRATION OF FERRUGINOUS MINERALS IN AQUIFERS IN YENAGOA, BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA, USING GEOELECTRIC VERTICAL ELECTRICAL SOUNDING (VES) AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Okorobia E. Mark, Etim D. Uko, Amechi Bright and Onengiyeofori A. Davies

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2020.59.70

A total of sixteen Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys and five physicochemical analyses were carried out in selected locations within the Yenagoa Metropolis, in Bayelsa State, Nigeria, to delineate the concentration of ferruginous minerals in freshwater aquifers in the area. For the geophysical survey, the Schlumberger electrode configuration was employed. The resulting data obtained was processed and interpreted using Excel suite, IPI2WIN resistivity, Surfer-11 and Rockworks software. The results revealed four to six geologic layers across the area, and were used to generate geoelectric maps which showed that in most part of the study area, there were uneven distributions of shallow aquifers (4 – 10m), and uneven layers of clay and sandy-silt at varying depths up to 20m. The physicochemical analysis of raw water samples collected from five boreholes located in close proximity to the VES sounding locations were analysed for physical and chemical parameters. Physical parameters tested include colour, conductivity, turbidity, and temperature. Chemical parameters analysed are pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Alkalinity, Total Iron, Carbonate, Chloride, Sulphate, and heavy metals such as copper, chromium, nickel, cadmium, manganese, zinc and lead. The pH was determined using a Mettler Toledo (GmbH 8603 Schwerzenbach) pH meter by direct measurement. An analogue mercury thermometer was used for temperature measurements and a Hach 2100A turbidimeter for turbidity determination. Also, the concentrations of Zinc, Lead, and Copper in the water samples were obtained using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. It was observed that the values SO42- , Cl-, Na2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F- have values below World Health Organization (WHO) standard in all boreholes tested while Mn2+, NH3, PO3−and Fe2+, K+, and Cu2+ have values above WHO standard in some boreholes. The pH values all showed that the water was slightly basic as the values all exceeded the neutral limit 7, with only station showing slightly elevated pH value 9, suggesting the presence of iron bacteria. F-, K+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ have values that exceeded the WHO standard. The results from Physicochemical and geophysical analysis suggest that at depths of 20 – 45m, the concentration of ferruginous minerals is high especially towards the north eastern section of the study area and so drilling should be made to approximate depths of 50 – 80m for minimal iron contamination in the aquifers.

Pages 59-70
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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PETROGRAPHY AND MICROTEXTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRANODIORITE FROM WASIMI, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

PETROGRAPHY AND MICROTEXTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRANODIORITE FROM WASIMI, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: E. J. Oziegbe, O. O. Ocan, A. P. Adebisi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2020.51.58

Rock samples of granodiorite from Wasimi were studied in detail to determine the minerals, mineral associations and the different micro-texture present in order to unravel the processes that were involved during the cooling of the magma. The following minerals were observed; plagioclase feldspars, K-feldspars, biotite, pyroxene, amphiboles, with zircon and sphene as accessory minerals. The pyroxene are engulfed in amphiboles and have reaction rims. Pyroxene occur as inclusions in plagioclase feldspars. Amphiboles are poikilitic with inclusions of quartz. Symplectic texture exits between the following minerals; plagioclase and K-feldspar, biotite and quartz, plagioclase and amphibole. The plagioclase feldspars have fractured and bent twin lamellae. Crystals of plagioclase feldspars are zoned and also exhibit both Carlsbad and albite form of twinning. It can be said that there was an initial slow cooling of the magma which was responsible for the large crystals of feldspars which was later followed by rapid cooling as the magma rises close to the surface which gave rise to zoned plagioclase feldspars and indication of high level intrusive.

Pages 51-58
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURE WASTE TO ATTAIN SOIL STABILIZATION FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN PUNJAB PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURE WASTE TO ATTAIN SOIL STABILIZATION FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN PUNJAB PAKISTAN

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Awais Masood Ahmed, Muhammad Ali, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Ajmal Ramzani, Muhammad Siddique Qureshi, Ahmad, Ahsan Saif Ullahf, Malahat Zehra

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2020.47.50

The soil underneath any type of structure e.g. Building, road, highways etc. should be able to resist loadings, if not so it is subjected to failure. Usually the soil at the site is not ideal from viewpoint of engineering. An approach to this problem, is to improve the soils or to adopt soil stabilization. Various methods of soil stabilization have been developed and in practice across the world. In this research an attempt was made to use the agricultural waste to improve the soil stability, as in Punjab agricultural waste is available in excess. In Punjab, major crops are wheat and rice. So wheat straw is available in excess in Punjab. In Punjab, mostly we have clayey soil. We select the representative samples from different areas of Punjab namely Kasur, Lahore and Sheikhupura and performed certain tests on these samples. The wheat straw totally failed in enhancing compaction, but compressive stress increased up to some extent. So it can be utilized in slopes of embankments of highways, railways etc. but can’t be used in construction of structures. So it is recommended that the future students should very fine wheat straw to make the project better and having a more in depth analysis.

Pages 47-50
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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HYDROGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY APPRAISAL IN OKITIPUPA AND ENVIRONS, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

HYDROGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY APPRAISAL IN OKITIPUPA AND ENVIRONS, NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Olumuyiwa Olusola Falowo, Victor Akinboboye

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2020.38.46

The objectives of study was to determine hydrochemistry of groundwater in Okitipupa and environs to assess the quality of groundwater for drinking, domestic and irrigation. A total of 27 groundwater samples were collected randomly from different sources and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of K>Na>Ca>Mg and SO4>Cl >HCO3>NO3. The hydrogeochemical facies indicate three dominant facies: non-carbonate hardness exceeds 50 %; non-carbonate alkali exceeds 50 %; and transition zone with no one cation-anion pair exceeds 50 %, while precipitation is the dominant process in the hydrogeochemical evolution of the groundwater samples. The WQI calculated exhibits good (60 %) and poor (40 %) quality water for drinking and domestic purposes. For irrigation assessment, residual sodium carbonate values revealed good irrigation, permeability index values indicates suitable and marginal class, sodium absorption ratio, Kelly ratio, and %Na indicate good irrigation water. The processes controlling the groundwater chemistry are mixing of saline with fresh water and anthropogenic contamination; weathering and cation exchange; mineral precipitation/anthropogenic pollution; and groundwater dilution and mineral dissolution. Consequently the water is fairly suitable for drinking/domestic, and good for irrigation purposes.

Pages 38-46
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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PROVENANCE AND TECTONIC SETTING OF SOME PALEOPROTEROZOIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE CHAGUPANA AND TARKWA AREAS OF GHANA: PETROGRAPHIC AND STRUCTURAL CONSTRAINTS

ABSTRACT

 

PROVENANCE AND TECTONIC SETTING OF SOME PALEOPROTEROZOIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE CHAGUPANA AND TARKWA AREAS OF GHANA: PETROGRAPHIC AND STRUCTURAL CONSTRAINTS

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Blestmond A. Brako, Gordon Foli, Etornam B. Fiadonu, Chiri Amedjoe, Derrick Aikins, Simon K.Y. Gawu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2020.01.07

Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks associated with the Man Shield of West Africa are perceived to be similar, irrespective of their locality. This research seeks to establish the provenance and tectonic setting of these rocks to ascertain any such similarity perception, based on information from two localities. The study uses modal mineral estimations to reconstruct the source, paleocurrent, paleoclimate and relief of some conglomerates and sandstones from Chagupana and Tarkwa areas in Ghana. Chagupana conglomerate has igneous and metamorphic provenances, while Kawere conglomerate has metamorphic provenance. Average mineralogical composition of Chagupana sandstone is Q53-F45-R3 and classify as arkose. Tarkwa suites of Huni, Kawere and Banket sandstones are composed of Q48-F34-R18, Q51-F25-R23 and Q76-F7-R17, and classify as lithic arkose, lithic arkose-feldspathic litharenite, and sublitharenite, respectively. Detritus of all the sandstones suggest acid igneous rock source, with minor sedimentary and metamorphic imprints, with an order of maturity as Banket>Kawere>Huni>Chagupana. Detritus in the Chagupana, Huni and Kawere sandstones are from the transitional continental margin. The Chagupana is from the cold arid climate, while the Huni and Kawere are from the semi-arid/semi-humid climates. The Banket sandstone mobilises from craton interior with recycled orogenic materials in a humid environment. The angular-subangular feldspars in Chagupana sandstone indicate low relief and low-moderate recycling close to the source. Huni, Kawere and Banket sandstones derive from low-moderate reliefs with multiple recycling episodes. The Chagupana and Huni sandstones show paleo-current directions from the north and east, respectively. Similarities between the Chagupana and Tarkwa rocks can only be limited to the tectonic setting and not from source area, paleo-climate, paleo-current and relief.

Pages 01-07
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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AMBIENT SEISMIC NOISE FOOTPRINTS AND SPECTRA IN THE MIDDLE BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

AMBIENT SEISMIC NOISE FOOTPRINTS AND SPECTRA IN THE MIDDLE BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Author: Clifford N. C. Mbachi, Etim D. Uko, Chibuogwu L. Eze, Iyeneomie Tamunobereton -Ari, Dorathy B. Umoetok And Allu A. Umbugdau

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2019.23.31

Ambient noise was analysed from a two-dimensional (2D) seismic data acquired in the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria for the purpose of characterizing the ambient seismic noise. Sercel 428XL recording instrument was deployed on 3 traverse lines where dynamite explosive sources and geophone detectors were used. The acquired data was processed using frequency wavenumber (FK) and wild amplitude attenuation (WAA) algorithms. The dominant amplitude of the primary reflection ranges between -20dB and -10dB, while those of the ambient seismic noise varies between -42dB and -3dB. The primary reflections have dominant frequency varying from 6Hz to 75Hz while that of ambient seismic noise varies between 4Hz and 70Hz. Analysis of the noise shows two distinct ground roll modes with velocities between 400 ms-1 and 810 ms-1 both of which are dispersive with wavelength (λ) of 61.5m and peak frequency at 6.5Hz. Analysis of passive noise records acquired showed that ambient seismic (background) noise level excluding source-generated noise average of 91.56% are below 25µV, which is the tolerance noise level limit. The combination of frequency wavenumber FK and WAA filters effectively attenuated the surface waves especially ground rolls and other high amplitude noise making the primary reflection very visible and better enhanced. The filtered amplitude values estimated from signal-to-noise (SNR) analysis using cross correlation (XC) method are much higher than the values of the unfiltered amplitudes indicating that SNR are highest when noises are attenuated from the data than when noise algorithm is not applied to the data. The attributes of these seismic noises will provide further information and solution for their suppression during seismic data acquisition and processing.

Pages 23-31
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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