Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

QUANTIFYING RIVERBANK EROSION AND ASSOCIATED LAND COVER CHANGES ACROSS THE COASTAL UPAZILA OF HIZLA, BANGLADESH: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH USING GIS AND MACHINE LEARNING

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QUANTIFYING RIVERBANK EROSION AND ASSOCIATED LAND COVER CHANGES ACROSS THE COASTAL UPAZILA OF HIZLA, BANGLADESH: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH USING GIS AND MACHINE LEARNING

ABSTRACT

QUANTIFYING RIVERBANK EROSION AND ASSOCIATED LAND COVER CHANGES ACROSS THE COASTAL UPAZILA OF HIZLA, BANGLADESH: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH USING GIS AND MACHINE LEARNING

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Mst Laboni, Shaikh Ashikur Rahman, Sonia Khan Sony, Muhammad Risalat Rafiq

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.164.173

Riverbank migration is a common phenomenon in the floodplains of Bangladesh. The continuous changes in river morphology affect its surrounding land-use patterns which pose threats to the life and property of people living near the rivers. The present study utilized thirty-one (1989-2020) years of satellite data to track the erosion-accretion and its influence on land-use and land-cover (LULC) change of Hizla Upazila using GIS-based Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) and Google Earth Engine (GEE) respectively. Statistical analysis revealed the average erosion rate (5.03 km2) is lower than accretion (5.72 km2), resulting in a net land gain of 24.93 Km2. The spatial distribution of erosional activity suggests that the central and western parts of Hizla Upazila are mostly affected, compared to the eastern part, where new deltas are forming. This phenomenon is attributed to the westward movement of the Lower Meghna River (LMR), making the central and western parts of Hizla more vulnerable. The pattern of land-use change manifests that nearby settlements and vegetation are primarily at risk due to channel migration. A significant decrease in total water area (2.1%) and an increase in bare land area (5.1%) between 1997-2010 indicates substantial deposition. Concurrently, there was a decrease in the total settlement (1.53 km2) and vegetation area (9.8 Km2), indicating natural hazards like floods and high-intensity rainfall. The overall kappa accuracy for LULC is over 85% demonstrating its suitability for forecasting. The outcomes of this study will aid the local community, policymakers, and researchers in mitigating risk and ensuring sustainability.

Pages 164-173
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF ANNUAL AND MAXIMUM DAILY RAINFALL IN HA’IL AREA USING PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION MODELS

ABSTRACT

FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF ANNUAL AND MAXIMUM DAILY RAINFALL IN HA’IL AREA USING PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION MODELS

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Mohammed Foudil Bourouba, Mustfa Faisal Alkhanani, Oumar Loni Lafouza

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.130.141

This study uses the Frequency analysis of the maximum daily and annual rainfall recorded during the period 1976-2020 at eight rain-measuring stations in the Ha’il region: Jubbah (106H-196), Baqa’a (103H-193), Simirah (105H-793), Uqlah Ibn Jibrin (208H-508) and Faydat Ibn Suwaylim (108H-198), Al Ha’it (111H-797), Al Ghazalah (215H-812) and Ha’il (101H-191), currently supervised by the Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture (MEWA). These stations were selected due to their locations in the Hail region, which is in great urban development causing an increase in demand for water resources to meet the growing population in urban centers. This paper compares four probability distributions (Normal, Log Normal, Gumbel and Exponential) using the rainfall data recorded in eight rain stations located in Ha’il area. Sets of data cover a period of about 45 years. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the maximum daily and annual rainfall by applying 4-four probability distributions, which are the Normal, the Log-Normal, the Exponential, and the Extreme Values-type 1, using the (Chow) model estimation. Results showed that Gumbel (EV 1) distribution has the least critical values in the tests. Hence, it is considered the best fit distribution for annual rainfall in Simirah and Baq’a. Furthermore, based on the results, it is evident that the exponential distribution is the best in Al Ha’it, Faydat Ibn Suwaylim, Al Ghazalah, Ha’il, and Jubbah. Whilst, the log normal distribution is the best in Al Uqlat. The results also showed that Gumbel (EV 1) distribution has the least critical values in the tests. Thus, it is regarded as the best-fit distribution for the maximum daily rainfall in Simirah and Ha’il, and the normal distribution is considered the best for the rest of the rain stations.

Pages 130-141
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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MESOZOIC DELTAIC SYSTEM AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC MODEL OF THE LOWER JURASSIC DATTA FORMATION ALONG THE WESTERN SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT

MESOZOIC DELTAIC SYSTEM AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC MODEL OF THE LOWER JURASSIC DATTA FORMATION ALONG THE WESTERN SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Abdul Jabbar, Ashar Khan, Rizwan Sarwar Awan, Sahib Khan, Khawaja Hasnain Iltaf

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.117.129

In this research, the Early Jurassic Datta Formation from three outcrop sections of the western Salt Range has been extensively studied to elucidate facies architecture, sedimentary features, diagenetic features, sequence stratigraphy, and depositional model. Datta Formation is well exposed with massive thickness in the western Salt Range and the Trans Indus Ranges, while tapering in the central Salt Range further eastward, it dies out. Its mainly dominated by variegated sandstone, siltstone, shale, fire clays, laterites, and carbonates. Seven lithofacies has been identified and interpreted in the Datta Formation, i.e., (i). Fluvial Meandering Lithofacies (JDL-01), (ii). Braided Fluvial Lithofacies (JDL-02), (iii). Lateritic Lithofacies (JDL-03), (iv). Flood Plain Lithofacies (JDL-04), (v). Siliciclastic Lagoon Lithofacies (JDL-05), (vi). Carbonates dominant Lagoon Lithofacies (JDL-06), (vii). Swamps related Deltaic Lithofacies (JDL-07). Sequence stratigraphic analysis is primarily based on recognizing sequence surfaces, finning-coarsening upward trends, and types of facies. Two transgressive-regressive cycles are identified in the south-eastern section (Kassan Nala and Kaowali sections), while four sequences are identified in the Nammal Gorge section. These sequences are started with the underlying sequence boundary of LST and ended with the sequence bounding surface after HST. Datta Formation is possibly deposited in fluvial to deltaic environments in the study area, revealing a prograding delta with a shoreline oriented in the SW-NE direction and the siliciclastic detritus fed the fluvial system running over the Indian cratonic basement in the direction of N-NW. The lower part of the formation is deposited in fluvial settings, probably in the incised valley. The point bar sequences result from meandering channel facies and show association with overlying flood plain/overbank facies. Moreover, the lagoonal facies mainly covered the upper part of the formation and displayed mixed lithologies of delta plain to delta front setting. However, the repetition of these lithofacies in the study area at several points indicates the recurrence of depositional phases. The carbonaceous shales and coal streaks are evident by the presence of swamp or marshy lands. These conditions meet the criteria of deltaic settings. Furthermore, several laterites and fire clay horizons are also argue periodic sub-aerial exposure of the depositional area. Thus it is concluded that the depositional area lies in a fluvial to deltaic setting with major distributary channels and their flood plain in the adjoining delta plain to delta front part.

Pages 117-129
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF MAGNETIC ANOMALY DATA REDUCED TO THE POLES IN THE ANDESITIC PROSPECT AREA OF THE SOUTHEAST SLOPE OF SLAMET VOLCANO, INDONESIA

ABSTRACT

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF MAGNETIC ANOMALY DATA REDUCED TO THE POLES IN THE ANDESITIC PROSPECT AREA OF THE SOUTHEAST SLOPE OF SLAMET VOLCANO, INDONESIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Sehah, Urip Nurwijayanto Prabowo, Sukmaji Anom Raharjo, Rizky Intan Prasetya

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2023.75.82

Reduction to the pole (RTP) is a magnetic anomaly data processing filter to remove the influence of the magnetic inclination angle. This filter is needed because of the magnetic dipole nature which complicates the interpretation process. The research aims to explore andesite rocks through the application of RTP to the local magnetic anomalies data in Kutasari District, Purbalingga Regency, Indonesia. The research procedures include data acquisition, processing, modeling, and interpretation. The 2D-modeling results on the local magnetic anomalies data have produced three layers of rock. Layer with a susceptibility value of 0.00291 cgs is interpreted as vesicular andesitic rocks, layer with a susceptibility value of 0.02307 cgs is interpreted as massive andesitic rocks, meanwhile layer with a susceptibility value of 0.00721 cgs is interpreted as undifferentiated volcanic rocks. The results showed that the west to northwest part of the study area is the most prospective area containing andesite rocks.

Pages 75-82
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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FLUID PREDICTION THROUGH LITHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN ‘M’ OIL FIELD NIGER DELTA: USING ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH

ABSTRACT

FLUID PREDICTION THROUGH LITHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN ‘M’ OIL FIELD NIGER DELTA: USING ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Ebong, S.T., Ekanem, A.M. and George, N.J.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2023.55.61

3D Lithology and reservoir fluid studies based on conventional interpretation approach, such as low Vp/Vs values indicating gas presence have been used to discriminate hydrocarbon fluids. This work was provoked by the emerging trends of noticeable uncertainties leading to drilling of dry wells in the study area. Confirming the physical indicators of hydrocarbon in the reservoirs through the employed method is worthwhile. Well log data of M oil field was investigated with the aim of identifying reservoir rocks through qualitative and quantitative interpretations of subsurface well log data of M oil field through rock properties cros-splots analysis in the select reservoir in the field (M-5000) and to derive elastic rock attributes such as Lame’s parameter terms (λρ and μρ), Vp/Vs, P-Impedance and S-Impedance from available petrophysical data. Rock attributes derived from well logs were combined to produce three major forms of crossplots, which described and characterized the reservoir in terms of fluid and lithology present. The combinations were: VP/VS versus IP, μρ against λρ and IP versus IS. These rock parameters were analyzed in cross-plots space and used to determine which of them constitutes better indicators of pore fluids and lithology. The M- oil field cross-plot analysis indicate the lowest values of VP/VS (2.05-2.40); IP (5600-6300 (m/s*(g/cc)), λρ (16-20 (GPa*g/cc)), and μρ (4-9.5 (GPa*g/cc)). However, the low values of VP/VS, IP, λρ, and μρ, perhaps IS corresponds to hydrocarbon (Gas) saturation within the M- oil field.

Pages 55-61
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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CHIBOK RIFTO-MAGNETICS AND GEOLOGY

ABSTRACT

CHIBOK RIFTO-MAGNETICS AND GEOLOGY

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Nsikak E. Bassey, Musa Hayatudeen, Nyakno J. George

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2023.47.54

On sheet 134 of the aeromagnetic map of Nigeria is a prominent northeast (NE) trending negative anomaly that extends for >20 km. This work reinterprets the anomaly using oasis montage™ 7.0 software, by inverse geological modelling of magnetic profiles. The aim of this work is to identify the Chibok magnetic anomaly as a plate tectonic feature, and as part of the West African Rift System. Three profiles were modelled across the residual magnetic anomaly, which yielded a depth range of 1 to 2 km. The result furnished a subsurface picture of ‘horst and graben’ which are characteristic of rifts. The sedimentary infill of the interpreted rift is considered to be sands/or sandstone due to the low magnetic anomaly. Sandstone has very low magnetic susceptibility [30 x106 emu (S.I.)] compared to granite and basalt. Geological data showed NW, NE, N-S, and E-W structural trends on the granitic basement. These manifest as faults, shear zones, joints and foliations. Emplacement of the Tertiary basalt in the NW of the area of study area showed planes of crustal weakness in the Precambrian basement. A palinspatic map of the area identified the pre-Tertiary geology. The sediment infill of the interpreted rift may serve as very rich aquifer for groundwater abstraction for irrigation in this semi-arid zone. The evidence of the plate tectonic nature of the interpreted rift indicated its alignment with offshore transform faults like Chain and Charcot as well as the Cameroun Volcanic Line.

Pages 47-54
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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CONCEPT OF CHANNEL PLANFORMS CHANGES ON POTENTIAL RIVER FLOODING

ABSTRACT

CONCEPT OF CHANNEL PLANFORMS CHANGES ON POTENTIAL RIVER FLOODING

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Okonofua E.S., Emeribe C.N., Dewingong C.L., Butu A.W

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2023.20.28

This study investigated the effect of channel planforms changes on potential river flooding in Kaduna state (River Kaduna as case study); with the aim to ascertain the effects of river channel planform on its potential flooding and put measures in place to advert the environmental menace. Topographic maps covering the entire course of the river and the characteristics of the river to be studied were obtained from the federal ministry of survey. The reliability of satellite images was verified by ground measurements using a 30m Surveyor’s tape on four bridges that cross River Kaduna. The measurements obtained were compared with correspondent measurements on the satellite image and found that the ground measurements and the measurements on both SPOT and Sentinel images were close. Three reaches (Meander 1, 2, 3; Straight reach 1, 2, 3 and Braided reach 1, 2, 3) were selected for this study. Variations measured along the river were changes in channel width, changes in sinuosity index, changes in braiding index channel lateral migration and changes in channel length from 1962 to 2017. The results showed a reduction in the channels width in all the reaches from average of 190m in 1962 to 74m in 2017; the sinuosity index was low in the duration considered (average of 1,15) while the braiding index value had a mean of 0.55. Channel migration also reduced from an average of 82m in 1962 to 53m in 2017 while the river reduced by 12% within this same period. The propensity of river flooding in the study area is high hence there is the need to carry out channel improvement, early warning system and desiltation of the river in order to eliminate the potential danger.

Pages 20-28
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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PREDICTION OF POROSITY OF RESERVOIR SANDS USING SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES IN “ARIKE” FIELD NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

PREDICTION OF POROSITY OF RESERVOIR SANDS USING SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES IN “ARIKE” FIELD NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

John Amigun, Florence Oyediran, Ayodele Falade

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2022.146.156

The study aimed at predicting the porosity of reservoir sands in ‘Arike field’ Niger Delta, Nigeria by converting seismic trace of the interval of interest in the seismic survey into a porosity log to generate a porosity volume. Optimal number of relevant attributes were selected using multi-attribute analysis. The study discovered that three attributes (energy, velocity fan, and Q factor) were efficient. These attributes were then utilized to train a supervised neural network to establish the relationship between seismic response and porosity. The Opendtect software used, extracted all specified input attributes and target values over the specified range along the well tracks and randomly divided the data into a training and test set attribute. The study established the integration and correlation of energy attribute, velocity fan attribute, and Q factor as relevant seismic attributes for porosity estimation when little or no well log is available, hence giving a means of spatially extending well data.

Pages 146-156
Year 2022
Issue 2
Volume 6

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APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE DYNAMICS OF FOUNDATION STUDIES USING GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS IN A TYPICAL SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENT, SOUTH SOUTH NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE DYNAMICS OF FOUNDATION STUDIES USING GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS IN A TYPICAL SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENT, SOUTH SOUTH NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Bawallah Musa Adesola, Charles Adebayo Oyelami, Adedapo Johnson Olumide, Ilugbo Stephen Olubusola, Adebo Babatunde A, Raji Idowu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.01.2022.66.75

A statistic is found useful in many applications of science where data and analysis are used for illustration and description for better understanding and justification of the data sets. Therefore in an attempt to achieve a better understanding and illustration of the dynamics of foundation integrity and vulnerability of failure, which often remain a major challenge to mankind, especially in Nigeria where foundation failures remain a major concern to both the Government and citizen. In this present study, a statistical approach was carried out on the Geophysical parameters in Issele-Mkitim area, South South Nigeria, to evaluate the dynamic factors that affect foundation integrity and vulnerability of subsurface lithologies. Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM), Magnetic, and Electrical Resistivity Methods were used in this study. The Electrical Resistivity Method involved Lateral Horizontal Profiling (LRP) utilizing Wenner configuration. The three (3) methods correlated in terms of statistical prediction and understanding of the geologic dynamics natured associated with foundation failure and integrity. It was deduced that profiles one to six has high tendency of weak geological material which can easily lead to subsidence if any engineering construction is erected on it. However, proper consideration must be put in place to avoid future differential settlements. All the methods give useful information about the dynamics of the geological trends from the preliminary data analysis and interpretations, and a better understanding of the geodynamics nature of the soil as well as the region of a weak and competent zone in terms of engineering constructions.

Pages 66-75
Year 2022
Issue 1
Volume 6

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GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETER ASSESSMENT AND BEARING CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR THE FOUNDATION DESIGN

ABSTRACT

GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETER ASSESSMENT AND BEARING CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR THE FOUNDATION DESIGN

Journal: Earth Science Malaysia (ESMY)

Khaleel Hussain, Dou Bin, Ali Asghar, Javid Hussain, Sayed Muhammad Iqbal, Syed Yasir Ali Shah, Sartaj Hussain

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esmy.02.2022.136.145

The main objective of this research is to determine the soil appropriateness for the construction of buildings, and it encompasses site investigation, a preliminary process for collecting geological, geotechnical, and other engineering information for safe and economical building design. Site investigation provides insight into unforeseen engineering problems; therefore, instability issues can be forestalled if done thoroughly. Residual soils from the research area comprise many clays, some of which can expand upon moisture increase. Therefore, a site investigation must be carried out to assess the site’s suitability for the proposed construction. The research includes nine boreholes and laboratory testing demonstrating the soil profile and bearing capacity within the settlement limit. The site’s soil is yellowish-brown, weathered, thickly bedded, loosely cemented, friable sandstone consisting of poorly graded sand (SP) and silt/sand (SP-SM) with clayey layers (ML-CL). Uniaxial compressive strength was recorded at 217 to 1238 kPa under natural and saturated conditions. Furthermore, the computed bearing capacity varies from 2.8 to 6.1 tsf using the Terzaghi approach, 7.1 to 8.0 tsf using Bowel’s method, and 4.7 to 5.4 tsf using the Meyerhof method. The coefficient of subgrade reaction for an isolated and raft foundation based on Bowels bearing capacity varies between 24.8 to 26.1 MN/m3 to 13.6 to 15.4 MN/m3, respectively. Based on the investigation and lab testing, a raft foundation would be appropriate for the structure. The proposed construction location didn’t find any significant geological defects; thus, it’s suitable for the construction of buildings. However, the paper’s recommendations must be implemented.

Pages 136-145
Year 2022
Issue 2
Volume 6

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